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Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris SMA : Mengenal Jenis Jenis Teks dalam Bahasa Inggris


NARRATIVE

Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story

Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Complication
3. Resolution
4. Reorientation

Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Chronologically arranged

Example :
Long ago on the top of Mount Kinabalu in Borneo, there lived a dragon. He owned a large and beautiful pearl. People believed that he controlled the weather with it.
The emperor of China heard this and wanted the pearl. He sent his two sons, Wee Ping and Wee San to Borneo to steal it. The princes, together with one hundred soldiers, set sail for Borneo in twelve sailing junks.
When they arrived in Borneo, The set out immediately to find the famous mountain. Their journey up the rugged slopes of Mount Kinabalu proved very difficult. The dragon guarded his cave very fiercely and killed many of their soldiers.
Then Wee San had a clever idea. He climbed a tall tree, so he could see the dragon’s cave. He noted what time the dragon left his cave to hunt for food and what time he returned to it.
Next he ordered his men to make a fake pearl and a large kite. He waited until the dragon left his cave. Then he placed the fake pearl in a bag, slung it across his shoulder and flew up to the mountain-top on the kite. He exchanged the real pearl for the fake one and then his brother pulled his kite back to the ground.
The brothers quickly returned to their ships and set sail for China. They sailed safely home. The emperor was thrilled with the pearl and gave a big party to celebrate his sons’ return.

RECOUNT

Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event

Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Event(s)
3. Reorientation

Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adjectives
Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE; whether Simple Past Tense, Simple Past Continuous Tense, or Past Perfect Tense. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time or place. Commonly narrative text is found in story book; myth, fable, folklore, etc while recount text is found in biography.
The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict, social conflict or psychological conflict. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. In the contrary, we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure

Example :
Class Picnic
Last Friday our school went to Centennial Park for a picnic
First our teachers marked the rolls and the we got on the buses. On the buses, everyone was chatting and eating. When we arrived at the park, some students played cricket, some played cards but others went for a walk with the teachers. At lunchtime, we sat together and had our picnic. Finally, at two o’clock we left for school.
We had a great day.

DESCRIPTIVE

Purpose: to describe a particular person, place or thing in detail.

Dominant Generic Structure:
1. Identification
2. Description
Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Using special technical terms

Example :
Borobudur Temple
Borobudur is Hindu – Budhist temple. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Borobudur is located in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia.
Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. The upper three are circular. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. The way to the summit extends through some 4.8 km of passage and starways. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor, Cambodia.
Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people

NEWS ITEM

Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important

Dominant Generic Structure:
1. Newsworthy event(s)
2. Background event(s)
3. Sources

Dominant Language Features:
1. Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline
2. Using action verbs
3. Using saying verbs
4. Using adverbs : time, place and manner.

Example :
Winning Award for Airport Toilet
Surabaya’s Juanda International Airport has won the Culture and Tourism Ministry’s 2009 toilet award, beating out 2007 winner Denpasar’s Ngurah Rai Airport, which now drops to fourth. Indonesia’s main gateway, Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, just outside Jakarta, moves up from fourth in 2007 to second, in the biennial “Sapta Pesona Clean Public Toilet Award”.

The award was first handed out in 2007, and has so far involved only international airports. Acting Culture and Tourism Minister Muhammad Nuh said he expected the award in future to also cover public toilets at tourist sites across the country.

“Granting the award to those running public toilets at tourist sites is expected to improve the quality of products and services, particularly in term of cleanliness . as part of efforts to enhance the image of national culture,” Nuh said during the award presentation ceremony.

REPORT

Purpose: to presents information about something, as it is.

Generic Structure
1. General classification
2. Description

Dominant Language Feature
1. Introducing group or general aspect
2. Using conditional logical connection
3. Using Simple Present Tense

Example :
Fax Machine
Fax, the short term for facsimile is a telecommunications technology used to transfer copies (facsimiles) of documents, especially using affordable devices operating over the telephone network. The word telefax, short for telefacsimile, for “make a copy at a distance”, is also used as a synonym. The device is also known as a telecopier in certain industries. When sending documents to people at large distances, faxes have a distinct advantage over postal mail in that the delivery is nearly instantenous, yet its disadvantages in quality and its proprietary format have relegated it to a position beneath email as the prevailing form of electronic document tranferral.

ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION

Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case

Generic Structure:
1. Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Reiteration/Conclusion

Dominant Language Features:
1. Using modals
2. Using action verbs
3. Using thinking verbs
4. Using adverbs
5. Using adjective
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using connectives/transition

Example :
Why Exercise is Important
The majority of us claim that we do not have time for exercise. We feel too busy to do that. However, many expert said that exercise has great role in making our body healthy

Being physically active offers many advantage. In physical reword, exercise can reduce weight then our body will become fitter. Exercise is also believed to reduce stress levels, improve sleep patterns, and reduce the risk of heart disease, diabetes and some forms of cancer. Beside physical advantage, exercise also brings good effects mentally. Due to the fitter body, exercise can make us feel refreshed and happy then we can increase our life quality and expectancy.

How can we do exercise while we are busy? Such question is commonly found among us. Actually exercise can be done in simple ways. We can go walking while shopping. In the office we can take stair rather than lift to run up and down. Or we can go cycling while enjoy the leisure time.

Over all, doing exercise is little bit difficult in busy life but the little bit of exercise will help better.

HORTATORY EXPOSITION
Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done

Generic Structure:
1. Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Recommendation

Dominant Language features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using modals
3. Using action verbs
4. Using thinking verbs
5. Using adverbs
6. Using adjective
7. Using technical terms
8. Using general and abstract noun
9. Using connectives/transition
Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. In simple word. Analytical is the answer of “How is/will” while hortatory is the answer of “How should”. Analytical exposition will be best to describe “How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. But for the question” How should student do for his exam?” will be good to be answered with hortatory. It is to convince that the thing should be done

Example :
How ASEAN Should Face CAFTA
the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area (CAFTA) is a win-win situation for ASEAN. It will help speed the recovery of ASEAN from the global recession.
The CAFTA is an important vehicle for trade-led growth and recovery in the ASEAN region with growth of 3.9 percent in 2009 which most likely will increase in 2010.
Furthermore, the launch of a US$10 billion infrastructure investment fund by China to improve roads, railways and airlines and strengthen telecommunication links may help speed the ASEAN recovery.
China has also committed to a $15 billion credit facility to promote regional integration. ASEAN should take advantage of this and not rely completely on the United States. Times are changing and regional groupings like the CAFTA, the SCO, the EU, the NAFTA, etc., are more beneficial than so-called globalization.
One crisis, like the one in the US, has a domino effect to the world economy, whereas one region that falls into a crisis can be rescued by other regions not affected by it. World trade will be more stable under divided regional groupings and still maintain world trade and investments globally.
Last but not the least, in order to take advantage of the CAFTA and make it work, ASEAN should cut down its bureaucratic red tape in its financial and economic sectors to efficiently speed up trade and investment, and do it with transparency.

DISCUSSION

Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’)

Generic Structure:
1. Issue
2. Arguments for and against
3. Conclusion

Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Use of relating verb/to be
3. Using thinking verb
4. Using general and abstract noun
5. Using conjunction/transition
6. Using modality
7. Using adverb of manner

Example :
National exam becomes the hot topic in most of discussions. Though the Supreme Court has rejected an appeal by the go-vernment on the organization of the national exams, the controversy over whether it is necessary to maintain the national exams (UN) has continued. Some debates include the primary questions such as; does the quality of Indonesia education depend on the national exam?, will the quality of the Indonesian education system worsen without natipnal exam?
People, who support the national exam explain that the quality of the Indonesia education system will drop without the national exam, so they try to defend the current system.
Hoever there are people who disagree with the opinion. Those who against this national exam kept in our high school education say that it doesn’t need the national exams because the quality of education does not just depend on the national exam. Further, the national exam only measures a small portion of students’ competence in specific subjects, and does not measure students’ competences throughout the semester.
In fact, the national examination can still be useful as an instrument to evaluate or detect the level of students’ cognitive competence in several subjects, on a national scale.

REVIEW

Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience

dominant Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Evaluation
3. Interpretative Recount
4. Evaluation
5. Evaluative Summation

Dominant Language features:
1. Focus on specific participants
2. Using adjectives
3. Using long and complex clauses
4. Using metaphor

Example :
2012 Film Review
2012 is Roland Emmerich’s film which uses the Mayan calendar and other end-of-days prophecies for their doomsday scenario. It imagines the world coming to an end in 2012.

2012 film brings off a series of wonders. The movie hits its peak early on. It starts when Cusack drives a limo through the streets of Los Angeles as freeways and skyscrapers crumble all around him from the shock of a 10.5 earthquake. The preposterous flying sequence is equally thrilling. The climax occurs aboard the giant ark, when an equipment malfunction almost threatens the entire mission.

Unfortunately, the crucial sequence is not filmed or edited with the requisite clarity. In 2012 film, Emmerich leaves us befuddled as to exactly what is happening to whom. However, Emmerich’ 2012 deserves credit for offbeat casting. Cusack supplies his trademark hangdog charm. McCarthy has perhaps his best role ever as Peet’s cocky. Danny Glover lends dignity to the role of the tormented president. Chiwetel Ejiofor, as the chief scientist, brings a moving sense of anguish to a stock role. Platt has fun playing the villain of the piece, and Woody Harrelson also chews the scenery as a bug-eyed radio prophet trying to warn his listeners about Armageddon.

All in one, 2012’s cinematography, production design and visual effects are awards-worthy. Music also propels the movie. It presents American Idol runner-up, Adam Lambert, who provides a rousing anthem over the end credits.

SPOOF
Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers

Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Event(s)
3. Twist

Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Chronologically arranged

Example:
The Zoo Job Story
One day a clown was visiting the zoo and attempted to earn some money by making a street performance. He acted and mimed perfectly some animal acts. As soon as he started to drive a crowd, a zoo keeper grabbed him and dragged him into his office. The zoo keeper explained to the clown that the zoo’s most popular gorilla had died suddenly and the keeper was fear that attendance at the zoo would fall off. So he offered the clown a job to dress up as the gorilla until the zoo could get another one. The clown accepted this great opportunity.
So the next morning the clown put on the gorilla suit and entered the cage before the crowd came. He felt that it was a great job. He could sleep all he wanted, played and made fun of people and he drove bigger crowds than he ever did as a clown. He pretended the gorilla successfully.
However, eventually the crowds were tired of him for just swinging on tires. He began to notice that the people were paying more attention to the lion in the next cage. Not wanting to lose the attention of his audience, he decided to make a spectacular performance. He climbed to the top of his cage, crawled across a partition, and dangled from the top to the lion’s cage. Of course, this made the lion furious, but the crowd people loved it.
At the end of the day the zoo keeper came and gave him a raise for being such a good attraction. Well, this went on for some time, he kept taunting the lion, the audience crowd grew a larger, and his salary kept going up. Then one terrible day happened. When he was dangling over the furious lion, he slipped and fell into the lion cage. The clown was really in big terrible situation. He was terrified.
Sooner the lion gathered itself and prepared to pounce. The clown was so scared. He could do nothing and he began to run round and round the cage with the lion close and closer behind. Finally, the lion could catch him. The clown started screaming and yelling, “Help me, help me!”, but the lion was quick and pounces. The clown soon found himself flat on his back looking up at the angry lion and suddenly he heard a voice from the lion’s mouth;”Shut up you idiot! Do you want to get us both fired?”.

EXPLANATION
Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena.

Generic Structure:
1. General statement
2. Explanation
3. Closing

Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verbs
3. Using passive voice
4. Using noun phrase
5. Using adverbial phrase
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect.

Example :
How does Rain Happen?
Rain is the primary source of fresh water for most areas of the world, providing suitable conditions for diverse ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric powehttp://maulzxxx.wordpress.com/wp-admin/post.php?post=41&action=editr plants and crop irrigation.
The phenomenon of rain is actually a water circle. The concept of the water cycle involves the sun heating the Earth’s surface water and causing the surface water to evaporate. The water vapor rises into the Earth’s atmosphere. The water in the atmosphere cools and condenses into liquid droplets. The droplets grow until they are heavy and fall to the earth as precipitation which can be in the form of rain or snow.
However, not all rain reaches the surface. Some evaporates while falling through dry air. This is called virga, a phenomenon which is often seen in hot, dry desert regions.

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9 comments on “Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris SMA : Mengenal Jenis Jenis Teks dalam Bahasa Inggris

  1. […] Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris SMA : Mengenal Jenis Jenis Teks dalam Bahasa Inggris […]

  2. […] Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris SMA : Mengenal Jenis Jenis Teks dalam Bahasa Inggris […]

  3. […] Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris SMA : Mengenal Jenis Jenis Teks dalam Bahasa Inggris […]

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  6. nice post. It helps me so much for final exam. thank you :)

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